18 USC 3582 - Sec. 3582. Imposition of a sentence of imprisonment

§3582. Imposition of a sentence of imprisonment

(a) Factors To Be Considered in Imposing a Term of Imprisonment.—The court, in determining whether to impose a term of imprisonment, and, if a term of imprisonment is to be imposed, in determining the length of the term, shall consider the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, recognizing that imprisonment is not an appropriate means of promoting correction and rehabilitation. In determining whether to make a recommendation concerning the type of prison facility appropriate for the defendant, the court shall consider any pertinent policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2).

(b) Effect of Finality of Judgment.—Notwithstanding the fact that a sentence to imprisonment can subsequently be—

(1) modified pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c);

(2) corrected pursuant to the provisions of rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and section 3742; or

(3) appealed and modified, if outside the guideline range, pursuant to the provisions of section 3742;

a judgment of conviction that includes such a sentence constitutes a final judgment for all other purposes.

(c) Modification of an Imposed Term of Imprisonment.—The court may not modify a term of imprisonment once it has been imposed except that—

(1) in any case—

(A) the court, upon motion of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, may reduce the term of imprisonment (and may impose a term of probation or supervised release with or without conditions that does not exceed the unserved portion of the original term of imprisonment), after considering the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, if it finds that—

(i) extraordinary and compelling reasons warrant such a reduction; or

(ii) the defendant is at least 70 years of age, has served at least 30 years in prison, pursuant to a sentence imposed under section 3559(c), for the offense or offenses for which the defendant is currently imprisoned, and a determination has been made by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons that the defendant is not a danger to the safety of any other person or the community, as provided under section 3142(g);

and that such a reduction is consistent with applicable policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission; and

(B) the court may modify an imposed term of imprisonment to the extent otherwise expressly permitted by statute or by Rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and

(2) in the case of a defendant who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment based on a sentencing range that has subsequently been lowered by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(o), upon motion of the defendant or the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, or on its own motion, the court may reduce the term of imprisonment, after considering the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, if such a reduction is consistent with applicable policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission.

(d) Inclusion of an Order To Limit Criminal Association of Organized Crime and Drug Offenders.—The court, in imposing a sentence to a term of imprisonment upon a defendant convicted of a felony set forth in chapter 95 (racketeering) or 96 (racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations) of this title or in the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), or at any time thereafter upon motion by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons or a United States attorney, may include as a part of the sentence an order that requires that the defendant not associate or communicate with a specified person, other than his attorney, upon a showing of probable cause to believe that association or communication with such person is for the purpose of enabling the defendant to control, manage, direct, finance, or otherwise participate in an illegal enterprise.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1998; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7107, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4418; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3588, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4930; Pub. L. 103–322, title VII, §70002, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1984; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3506; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3006, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1806.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1236, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 13 (§801 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–273 inserted “(and may impose a term of probation or supervised release with or without conditions that does not exceed the unserved portion of the original term of imprisonment)” after “may reduce the term of imprisonment” in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–294 inserted “or” after semicolon at end.

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–322, inserted a dash after “if it finds that”, designated “extraordinary and compelling reasons warrant such a reduction” as cl. (i), inserted a semicolon at end of cl. (i), realigned margins accordingly, and added cl. (ii) before concluding provisions.

1990—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted “of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure” after “rule 35”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “994(o)” for “994(n)”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this section, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3551 of this title.